地震時躲在「生命三角」內

Posted on 2011 年 03 月 18 日. Filed under: 新聞與政治 | 標籤:, , , |

地震來時躲在「生命三角」內存活機會最大 !

Triangle of Life – a small void can save life !  Sharing below information with you, hope it’s helpful.

溫室效應讓地殼及海洋溫度升高, 地殼膨脹擠壓, 所以地震愈來愈頻繁也愈猛烈, 您住在地球上任何角落都可能難逃地震的傷害, 小心不要被地震淘汰!

以下是道格•庫普(Doug Copp),是世界上最有經驗的救援小組─美國國際救援小組(ARTI)的首席救援者,也是災難部經理。以下信息能在地震中挽救生命。

~「生命三角」的求生方法 ~

美國國際救援小組(ARTI)網址:http://www.amerrescue.org/

地震來時躲在「生命三角」內存活機會最大!
 
地震中的自救10項要領  10 Tips For Earthquake Safety :

◣當建築物倒下時,每個只「蹲下和掩護」的人都幾乎全被壓死了。而那些躲到物體,如桌子,或汽車下躲避的人也總是受到了重傷或死亡。

Most everyone who simply “ducks and covers” WHEN BUILDINGS COLLAPSE are crushed to death. People who get under objects, like desks or cars, are crushed.

◣貓,狗和小孩子在遇到危險的時候,會自然地蜷縮起身體。地震時,你也應這麼做。這是一種安全的本能。而你在一個很小的空間裡便可做到。靠近一個物體,一個沙發,或一個大物體,結果它僅受到輕微的擠壓。

Cats, dogs and babies often naturally curl up in the fetal position.  You should too in an earthquake. It is a natural safety/survival instinct.  You can survive in a smaller void. Get next to an object, next to a sofa, next to a large bulky object that will compress slightly but leave a void next to it.

◣在地震中,木質建築物最牢固。木頭具有彈性,並且與地震的力量一起移動。如果木質建築物倒塌了,會留出很大的生存空間,而且木質材料密度最小,重量最小。磚塊材料則會破碎成一塊塊更小的磚。磚塊會造成人員受傷,但是被磚塊壓傷的人遠比被水泥壓傷的人數要少得多。

Wooden buildings are the safest type of construction to be in during an earthquake. Wood is flexible and moves with the force of the earthquake.  If the wooden building does collapse, large survival voids are created.  Also, the wooden building has less concentrated, crushing weight. Brick buildings will break into individual bricks. Bricks will cause many injuries but less squashed bodies than concrete slabs. 

◣如晚上發生地震,而你正在床上,你只要簡單地滾下床。床的周圍便是一個安全的空間。

) If you are in bed during the night and an earthquake occurs, simply roll off the bed. A safe void will exist around the bed. Hotels can achieve a much greater survival rate in earthquakes, simply by posting a sign on The back of the door of every room telling occupants to lie down on the floor, next to the bottom of the bed during an earthquake.

◣如地震發生,你正在看電視,不能迅速地從門或窗口逃離,那就在靠近沙發,或椅子的旁邊躺下,然後蜷縮起來。

If an earthquake happens and you cannot easily escape by getting out the door or window, then lie down and curl up in the fetal position next to a sofa, or large chair.

◣大樓倒塌時,被發現很多人在門口死亡。這是怎麼回事?如你站在門框下,當門框向前或向後倒下時,你會被頭頂上的屋頂砸傷。如門框向側面倒下,你會被壓在當中,所以,不管怎麼樣,你都會受到致命傷害!

Most everyone who gets under a doorway when buildings collapse is killed. How? If you stand under a doorway and the doorjamb falls forward or backward you will be crushed by the ceiling above. If the door jam falls sideways you will be cut in half by the doorway. In either case, you will be killed!

◣千萬不要走樓梯,因樓梯與建築物搖晃頻率不同,樓梯和大樓的結構物會不斷發生個別碰撞。人在樓梯上時,會被樓梯的台階割斷,會造成很恐怖的毀傷!就算樓梯沒有倒塌,也要遠離樓梯,哪怕不是因為地震而斷裂,還會因為承受過多的人群而坍塌。

Never go to the stairs. The stairs have a different “moment of frequency ” (they swing separately from the main part of the building).  The stairs and remainder of the building continuously bump into each other until structural failure of the stairs takes place. The people who get on stairs before they fail are chopped up by the stair treads – horribly mutilated. Even if the building doesn’t collapse, stay away from the stairs. The stairs are a likely part of the building to be damaged. Even if the stairs are not collapsed by the earthquake, they may collapse later when overloaded by fleeing people. They should always be checked for safety, even when the rest of the building is not damaged.

◣儘量靠近建築物的外牆或離開建築物。靠近牆的外側遠比內側要好。你越靠近建築物的中心,你的逃生路徑被阻擋的可能性就越大。

Get Near the Outer Walls Of Buildings Or Outside Of Them If Possible – It is much better to be near the outside of the building rather than the interior. The farther inside you are from the outside perimeter of the building the greater the probability that your escape route will be blocked.

◣地震時,在車內的人會被路邊墜落的物體砸傷,這正是Nimitz Freeway路上所發生的事情。San Francisco地震無辜受害者都是呆在車內。其實,他們可簡單地離開車輛,靠近車輛坐下,或躺在車邊就可以了。所有被壓垮的車輛旁邊都有一個 3英呎高的空間,除非車輛是被物體垂直落下。

People inside of their vehicles are crushed when the road above falls in an earthquake and crushes their vehicles; which is exactly what happened with the slabs between the decks of the Nimitz Freeway. The victims of the San Francisco earthquake all stayed inside of their vehicles. They were all killed. They could have easily survived by getting out and sitting or lying next to their vehicles. Everyone killed would have survived if they had been able to get out of their cars and sit or lie next to them. All the crushed cars had voids 3 feet high next to them, except for the cars that had columns fall directly across them.

◣在報社或辦公室裡堆有很多報紙的地方,通常會好些,因為報紙不受擠壓。你在紙堆旁可找到一個比較大的空間。

While crawling inside of collapsed newspaper offices and other offices with a lot of paper, that paper does not compact.  Large voids are found surrounding stacks of paper.

我曾經和來自60多個不同國家成立的各種救援小組一起工作過,曾在875個倒塌的建築物裡爬進爬出。在聯合國災難減輕(UNX051-UNIENET)小組中我擔任了任期兩年的專家。從1985年至今,除非同時發生了多個災禍,我幾乎參與了每一次重大的救援工作。

1996年,我們用我創立且被證明是正確的方法製作了一部電影。土耳其政府、伊斯坦布爾市、伊斯坦布爾大學及ARTI聯合製作了這部科學研究影片。

我們模擬摧毀了一座學校,和一個裡面有20個人體模型的房屋。10個人體模型用「蹲下和掩護」方法,另外10個模型使用我的「生命三角」的求生方法。

模擬地震發生後,我們通過倒塌的碎石慢慢進入建築物,並拍攝和記錄了結果。
在一個可直接觀察到及科學的條件下,這部電影拍攝了我使用的求生技術。結果顯示那些用「蹲下和掩護」方法的人存活率是零,而那些使用「生命三角」的人能夠達到100%存活率。

我曾進入的第一個建築物是在1985年墨西哥地震中的一個學校。每個孩子都在課桌底下。每個孩子都被壓扁了。他們如能挨著課桌的走道里他們躺下,就有生還的希望。我不知道孩子們怎麼會被誤導要躲在某物體的下面。

簡單地說,當建築物倒塌落在物體或家具上的屋頂重力會撞擊到這些物體,使得靠近它們的地方留下一個空間。這個空間就是被我稱作的「生命三角」。物體越大,越堅固,它被擠壓的餘地就越小。而物體被擠壓得越小,這個空間就越大,於是利用這個空間的人免於受傷的可能性就越大。

下次,你在電視裡觀看倒塌的建築物時,數一數這些形成的「三角」。你會發現到處都有這些三角。在倒塌的建築物裡,這是最常見的形狀。幾乎到處都有。

我培訓Trujillo(人口約為75萬人的地方)的消防部門,教導人們如何求生,如何照顧他們的家人,以及如何在地震中援救他人。Trujillo消防部門的救援總負責人是Trujillo大學教授。他陪伴我同行,他說:「我11歲時被陷在一幢倒塌的建築物裡。就是發生在1972年的那場地震中,當時有7萬人死亡。我利用我哥哥摩托車旁的『生命三角』保住了生命。我的朋友們,躲在床下,
桌子下的人都死了,我可以稱作是『生命三角』活生生的例子,而我那些朋友是「蹲下和掩護」的例子。」

Earthquake Safety Rules

During the earthquake:

Do not panic, keep calm.
Douse all fires.
If the earthquake catches you indoors, stay indoors. Take cover under a sturdy piece of furniture. Stay away from glass, or loose hanging objects.
If you are outside, move away from buildings, steep slopes and utility wires.
If you are in a crowded place, do not rush for cover or to doorways.
If you are in a lift, get out of the lift as quickly as possible.
If you are in a tunnel, move out of the tunnel to the open as quickly as safety permits.

After the earthquake:

Check for casualties and seek assistance if needed.
If you suspect a gas leak, open windows and shut off the main valve. Leave the building and report the gas leaks. Do not light a fire or use the telephone at the site.
Turn off the main valve if water supply is damaged.
Do not use the telephone except to report an emergency or to obtain assistance.
Stay out of severely damaged buildings as aftershocks may cause them to collapse.  Report any building damage to the authorities.

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